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Alpine skiing



Features Of Ski Sports

1. In their dynamic structure, as a characteristic of sports discipline, modern skiing is a complex speed-power sport, requiring a solid base of technical skills and a high degree of physical performance. Based on this definition, the skier is first and foremost an athlete in his specific sport, in which the body is required to work as a whole in the special conditions of the racing disciplines.

2. The term physical condition is used as a synonym for the state of mental, physical and intrinsic functional fitness of the human body to achieve a specific sporting purpose.

3. Physical training (fitness) characterizes the complex expression of the physical qualities and abilities of the athlete, namely - speed, strength, endurance, flexibility, balance, agility and coordination, rebounding and more. Conditioning training consists of a system of exercises to enhance and maintain these qualities, as well as exercises that help them to be used effectively in a competitive environment.

             The exercises are divided into:
- Specific - related, mainly to specific ski exercises.

- Special - (Special ski training, which is usually and most often performed on the ski slope)
- Non-specific with their derivatives - specialized tools that are borrowed from other sports (athletics, weightlifting, gymnastics, acrobatics, etc.) Of course the emphasis will fall on the non-specific means in this material and we will pay special attention to the funds and methods of weight and athletics - sports that have proven many times in the construction of complex qualities, especially in adolescents.


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Highlights on Conditioning and conditioning training for small skiers - Part 1

As coaches and sports professionals, knowing the morphological and functional characteristics of a given age, it is then possible to develop and apply adequate methods of loading the adolescent organism with maximum formative effect.

Features in the age group 7-12 years

                        By age 10, boys and girls are about the same height and weight. The average rate of increase in height between 7 and 10 years is about 5 cm per year, and for body weight - 2 - 3 kg per year. The chest is highly mobile. During this period, the biomechanical structure of children's movements approaches that of adults. Of course, the musculoskeletal system has not yet completed its development. This often results in deformities of the spine that reach up to 20-25% for this early school age. The timely detection of these functional deformities and the use of special complexes of physical exercises for their retention or elimination is a priority in the implementation of exercises and fitness complexes.

The dynamics in the development of physical qualities:

The quality of speed reaches the highest values ​​of growth in the 10th year. From 9 to 12 years, the most successful cyclical movements are developed with high frequency of execution.

The strength gradually increased to the 10th year, and in the 11th made a certain leap in its development. In boys of 8, and in girls of 9 years, muscle strength increases most significantly. During the period of 7-11 years the explosive movements of the children, related to the development of the speed-power capabilities, accelerated.

Endurance as a criterion for the aerobic performance of a child's organism increases in the 9th and 10th years. At primary school age, there were no significant differences between boys and girls in the rate of her growth. This increase is most pronounced between the 11th and 12th years. After this age, endurance quality depends on the specific gender-specific patterns.

The flexibility associated with joint mobility developed most intensively in the 8th and 9th years for boys and 9th for girls.

Dexterity, dependent on the development of speed, strength, flexibility and coordination skills, develops rapidly throughout the early school age.

In the age aspect, the basic motor qualities: speed, strength, endurance, flexibility and agility develop heterochronously (simultaneously). Complex with the highest increase in the development of motor skills in boys emerges 8th year, and in girls - 9th and 10th year.

Highlights on Conditioning and conditioning training for small skiers - Part 2

Features in the age group 13-16

Sexual maturation. The period is defined as puberty. Here we have an accelerated impact on the activities of all organs and systems. The brain and heart are no exception. The so-called secondary sexual characteristics appear - in both sexes hairs under the armpits and around the genitals, change of voice in boys, development of the mammary glands and onset of menis in girls (menarche) and the first ejaculation in boys. it occurs at the same time to all adolescents, at some the process is faster and at others - more fun.

Fast physical growth. The average increase in growth in boys per year is from 4 to 7 cm and reaches 8 - 10 cm by 15 years. In girls, growth is most intense at 13 years. In two years the growth can increase by 20 cm. The growth of the limbs is expressed. It lags behind the breast and pelvis. As a result, the harmony of the body is disturbed, which is of particular concern to girls. Disharmony is complemented by slower muscle development. With unbalanced proportions of body proportions, the movements of the adolescents can be sharp and inconsistent (uncoordinated).

Internal changes in the body. The relationship between the development of the heart, the mass of the body and the state of the blood vessels is unfavorable. The volume of the heart increases twice, the body increases - one and a half, and the diameter of the arteries remains narrow. Hence, contradictions with adverse reflections can occur.

Highlights on Conditioning and conditioning training for small skiers - Part 3

Development of physical qualities in the age aspect

         Numerous studies, studies and analyzes by prominent Bulgarian and foreign specialists in the field of physical development, such as Guzhalovsky, Krum Rachev, Zatsiorski, Ivan Kadiyski, Krastev, Lint, Matveev, etc., prove that when there is a purposeful impact on the development of physical qualities, and especially when these developments coincide with the corresponding sensory periods, children achieve significantly higher results and, accordingly, their retention over time is longer. (Sensitivity-periods of developmental age favorable to the development of individual physical qualities)

Hence, the following sequence has been suggested to suggest in the construction and development of physical qualities in the age aspect:

1) Prevention

2) Speed

3) Flexibility

4) Speed ​​power qualities

5) Overall durability

6) Muscle strength

7) Speed ​​and power endurance

         Their priority development during the sensitive periods should be in organic connection with the work to raise the level and other qualities.


Highlights on Conditioning and conditioning training for small skiers - Part 4

Transfer of training.

            Sport-pedagogical practice shows that purposeful work for the development of one physical quality influences the development of another. This pattern is more pronounced, the lower the age of the practitioners. This problem is known in the specialized literature as training transfer. This problem is of fundamental importance for the construction of a training program in physical training.

         The transfer of training decreases with increasing age and sportsmanship due to the specificity of adaptive changes in the body of high-digit athletes, while in beginners it is more pronounced.

         Examples of training transfer or quality transfer:

         Purposeful work for the development of speed during the stage of preliminary and initial sports training helps to increase the strength and back-strength (within certain limits) and flexibility in the joints and elasticity of the muscle fibers leads to increased speed capabilities of children. The improvement of agility depends to a large extent on the high level of development of speed and power qualities. Repeated repetition of speed exercises (starts, runs, etc.) helps to increase special endurance.

            Based on the general statement of the problem, we come to the following conclusions: that the transfer of qualities is most pronounced in this age group. The complexity that we aspire to in skiing is formed just then and becomes the foundation and foundation for the development of motor skills in the groups of high sportsmanship.